- Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning
- Classical Conditioning
- Operant Conditioning
- How to Get your Desired Behaviour using Operant Conditioning
- Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement
- Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Different Reinforcement Schedules
- Continuous Reinforcement
- Partial Reinforcement
- 1. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement: Repetitions of the Desired Behavior
- 2.Fixed Interval Reinforcement: Time Intervals
- 3.Variable Ratio Reinforcement: Variability on Average
- 4.Variable Interval Reinforcement: Random Intervals
- How to Get Your Desired Behaviour Using Operant Conditioning
- Advice on How to Make Operant Conditioning Work For You
- The Power of Reward
Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning
Have you ever wondered how our behaviors are learned? Meet Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner, two behavioral psychologists who pioneered the theories of classical and operant conditioning, respectively. Let's examine how the theories they studied help us understand the way the way we learn.
First, let's visit Mr. Pavlov. He studied what is called classical conditioning. You'll sometimes also hear this referred to as respondent conditioning. In classical conditioning, learning refers to involuntary responses that result from experiences that occur before a response.
Classical conditioning occurs when you learn to associate two different stimuli. No behavior is involved. The first stimulus that you will encounter is called the unconditioned stimulus. An unconditioned stimulus produces a response without any previous learning. This response is called an unconditioned response.
For an example of a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response, let's imagine a kiss.
Kissing creates involuntary arousal responses; it causes you to experience an elevated heart rate, for example. This is a natural response, it is not learned, and it happens automatically.
The unconditioned stimulus in this example is the kiss, and the elevated heart rate is the unconditioned response.
In classical conditioning, you now add a neutral stimulus to the experience. It is called a neutral stimulus because it is not associated with the unconditioned response. Thinking of our example of a kiss, imagine that your favorite song is playing when you kiss. The song will be the neutral stimulus.
When the song is paired with kissing, your heart rate still increases because of the kiss.
However, after repeated pairing of your favorite song with the act of kissing, your brain will start to think, 'I hear my favorite song, so kissing must be going to happen soon!' Because of this, you will experience an increased heart rate when you hear your favorite song.
Your brain is now associating your favorite song with kissing. Rather than continuing as a neutral stimulus, the song has become a conditioned stimulus because it produces a response with or without the occurrence of kissing.
The increased heart rate is an unconditioned response following kissing, but now also becomes a conditioned response when it follows your favorite song. It is a conditioned response following the song because the song would not produce the elevated heart rate if it were not associated with the act of kissing.
Next, let's visit Mr. Skinner. He studied what is called operant conditioning. You'll sometimes also hear this referred to as instrumental conditioning. In operant conditioning, learning refers to changes in behavior as a result of experiences that occur after a response.
Operant conditioning involves changing voluntary behaviors. A behavior response is followed by either reinforcement or punishment. Reinforcement following a behavior will cause the behavior to increase, but if behavior is followed by punishment the behavior will decrease.
Let's go back to the example of the kiss. What would happen if the person put their arms around you and kissed you back enthusiastically? This would be an example of reinforcement and would probably increase the lihood that you would seek another kiss from the person.
There are two types of reinforcement. Positive reinforcement refers to the addition of something positive. Examples of this would be offering praise or a treat when a desired behavior is displayed.
Negative reinforcement occurs when something undesirable is removed whenever a behavior is displayed.
Examples of this would be taking aspirin to get rid of a headache or doing the dishes to avoid a fight with your roommate.
Because of its name, negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment. The key difference is that negative reinforcement involves the removal of a negative consequence to increase the lihood of a response. Reinforcement always increases the occurrence of a response, while punishment always decreases the occurrence of a response.
Now, let's think of the example of the kiss again. What would happen if, when you attempted to kiss someone, the person became angry and they pushed you away? This would be an example of punishment, and it would probably decrease the lihood that you would seek a kiss from the person again.
There are also two types of punishment that occur in operant conditioning. Positive punishment is the addition of something undesirable.
Examples would be a child receiving a spanking or receiving extra chores for misbehaving. The other type of punishment is negative punishment. Negative punishment is the removal of something pleasing.
Examples would be a child being placed in timeout or losing video game privileges for misbehavior.
How to Get your Desired Behaviour using Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning Example. Image Retrieved by URL. Property of Creative Commons 2.0.
There are two types of reinforcement: positive and negative.
You may have had moments where one of these forms of reinforcement worked well for you, while another stirred up feelings of shame or resentment.
Have you ever rewarded a child with candy for good behavior? That is an example of positive reinforcement.
Different reinforcement methods will lead to different experiences and behavior.
“If you want a different result you have to choose a different behaviour.” – Dr. Phil
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a method of increasing the lihood of a given behavior.
This article explores these two branches of operant conditioning, leaving readers at the end to decide for themselves, which guides works best for them.
Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is an additional stimulus that encourages certain behavior. This is a type of operant conditioning.
For example, parents use positive reinforcement when they a child for completing their chores with a piece of candy. The child starts associating chores with candy, and as a result, they complete their chores more reliably and enthusiastically in the hopes of earning more candy.
On the other hand, negative reinforcement is misunderstood sometimes mean punishment. However, in this case, the word “negative” is not referring to something bad but rather, to the removal of a stimulus. With negative reinforcement, the stimulus is unpleasant, thereby encouraging the behavior by its absence.
An example of negative reinforcement is an overprotective parent, who perhaps without realizing it, pays less attention to their teenager’s activities or whereabouts when they receive good grades. The teenager begins to associate academic success with the parent’s looser grip and continues to study hard so as to enjoy their freedom.
In this way, the lack of extra supervision negatively reinforces the teenager’s behavior.
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Different Reinforcement Schedules
B.F. Skinner. Image Retrieved by URL. Property of Wikimedia Commons.
B.F. Skinner, one of the most influential behavioral psychologists, became famous through his reinforcement experiments on rats. In the famous “Skinner Box,” rats could push a lever that distributed food, or with his work with pigeons, the birds had a food-dispensing dish.
Depending on the nature of his experiment, the reinforcements varied for these studies using rats and pigeons.
One of Skinner’s leading discoveries is that the schedule of reinforcement has a profound impact on the success of the reinforcement in eliciting the desired behavior.
Overall, there are two types of scheduling reinforcement: continuously or partially. Within partial reinforcement, there are four sub-categories of how the reinforcement schedule can occur.
On this schedule, reinforcement occurs each time the desired behavior occurs. Typically, this is a good schedule to start with because it creates a strong association between the desired behavior and the reward. For example, if training a dog to sit, then the trainer must give the dog the treat (or reward) every time the dog responds to the order to “sit.”
This generally involves the most amount of effort and resources, and it is most vulnerable to extinction or the cessation of the learned behavior).
With the same example of the dog, if the trainer were to ask the dog to sit, yet stop offering a reward for the behavior, the dog may lose interest in completing this order.
Partial reinforcement involves having less frequent and consistent reinforcement. Skinner used four different partial reinforcement method.
1. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement: Repetitions of the Desired Behavior
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement is offered when behavior is performed a certain number of times. An example this would be rewarding yourself with a chocolate bar after every fifth workout you do or allowing yourself to splurge on a bigger purchase if you reach your financial income goal every six months.
2.Fixed Interval Reinforcement: Time Intervals
This is when reinforcement occurs at fixed time intervals, however only if the desired behavior is done at least once during the interval. An example of this is hourly compensation, regardless of the amount of work completed. Or when employees receive a break every two hours, regardless of how much work is completed.
3. Variable Ratio Reinforcement: Variability on Average
This reinforcement works on averages. Such as after the fifth time, then after the fifteenth time, for an average of about 10 times). Interestingly, variable ratio reinforcement generally produces the desired behavior which is most resistant to extinction.
An example of this type of is a jackpot at a slot machine may occur at a fixed probability, but the number of lever pulls required will vary each time. While the number of times for the pulled lever will vary, the average amount the machine rewards people remains the same.
4.Variable Interval Reinforcement: Random Intervals
Variable Ratio Reinforcement occurs after random amounts of time (but within a specific average), provided the desired behavior has happened at least once during that time.
An example of this is a fisherman who gets may get a bite, on average, every hour, but the individual bites will occur at different times. This is the most unpredictable of the four types. Another example is when a boss reviews your work, either daily with casual drop-ins by your work area, or when they visit a site unexpectedly.
How to Get Your Desired Behaviour Using Operant Conditioning
When introducing a new behavior, it may be best to start off with a continuous schedule, the gradually over time shifting into one of the partial reinforcement schedules.
If we return to the dog-training example, imagine a dog who receives a treat every time they respond to the order, “Sit.” Over time, the trainer could start offering treats every other time the dog sits, and eventually, every few times. This way, the dog continues to respond to the word “sit,” because they are never sure when the action will result in a treat.
The advantage of partial schedules of reinforcement is that they can prevent the reward from losing value too quickly. When the reinforcer is presented too often and too easily, it may lose its reinforcing power.
It is a good idea to gradually wean off the reinforcer until, ideally, the desired behavior is performed without it.
Advice on How to Make Operant Conditioning Work For You
If you decide to use positive reinforcement in your life, with your kids, with your pets, or at work, there are a few key points you should remember:
- The value of the reward is subjective. You should pick a reward that you know is desirable.
- The value of the reward can lessen with time, so do not give it too freely. You may want to consider a backup reward.
- You should always plan ahead. Work towards weaning off of the reward. Remember, the goal is to eventually perform the desired behavior without needing a reward.
- Never underestimate the value of praise. In many instances, it can trump any tangible reward.
What are ways you may incorporate operant conditioning in your life, or upon reflection, ways it has been used with you? We would love to hear about it in our comments section.
The Power of Reward
If you are interested in seeing the power of reinforcement on motivation, check out this TEDtalk by Dan Ariely on what makes us feel good about our work:
What do you think? Are we in control of our own decisions or not? Let us know in our comments section below.
McLeod, S. (n.d.). Skinner – Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html