# Quick Answer: What Is The Saturation Voltage?

## What is saturation voltage of a transistor?

Saturation is the on mode of a transistor.

A transistor in saturation mode acts like a short circuit between collector and emitter.

In saturation mode both of the “diodes” in the transistor are forward biased.

That means VBE must be greater than 0, and so must VBC.

In other words, VB must be higher than both VE and VC..

## What is the saturation voltage of 741 in terms of VCC?

For a 741 op-amp powered with VCC= +10V and VEE= -10V, Vo will saturate (reach the maximum output voltage range) at about ±10 V. With an A=200,000V/V saturation occurs with an input differential voltage of 10/200,000 = 50µV, a very small voltage.

## Why VCE SAT is 0.2 V?

Because the charge carriers injected from the base effectively eliminate the depletion zone between the collector and emitter. The collector current doesn’t have to overcome the P-N junction potential because the base current has neutralized it.

## What is Virtual Earth in op amp?

What is Virtual Ground ? … In opamps the term virtual ground means that the voltage at that particular node is almost equal to ground voltage (0V). It is not physically connected to ground. This concept is very useful in analysis of opamp circuits and it will make a lot of calculations very simple.

## How do you calculate saturation voltage?

If the input voltage is either too large or too small (too negative), then the amplifier output voltage will be equal to either L+ or L- . If vout = L+ or vout =L- , we say the amplifier is in saturation (or compression).

## What is saturation process?

Saturation is the process or state that occurs when a place or thing is filled completely with people or things, so that no more can be added. Reforms have led to the saturation of the market with goods. [ + of] Road traffic has reached saturation point.

## What is the saturation of a color?

There are three primary ways we evaluate color: hue, value and saturation. Color saturation is the intensity and purity of a color as displayed in an image. The higher the saturation of a color, the more vivid and intense it is. The lower a color’s saturation, the closer it is to pure gray on the grayscale.

## How many volts can a transistor take?

Anyways, if you follow the “datasheets here” link, the NPN transistor included with your kit is a SS9013. This particular transistor is rated for a maximum (collector-emitter) voltage of 20V, and a maximum current of 500 mA. This means that you can switch a (small) 12V device with the transistors you have.

## What is the saturation voltage of an op amp?

about 13.5 to 14 voltsthat means the amplification or gain is so high as to make the output signal with a given input signal, so large as to exceed the compliance range of the power supply of the ope amp. More simply put, if you have an op amp supplied with +/-15V supply rails. the saturation points will be about 13.5 to 14 volts.

## Why does op amp clipping?

Clipping is a form of waveform distortion that occurs when an amplifier is overdriven and attempts to deliver an output voltage or current beyond its maximum capability. Driving an amplifier into clipping may cause it to output power in excess of its power rating.

## What is saturation function?

In the context of “deep learning”, a “saturation function” is the common type of transfer function found in Multilayer Perceptrons (MLPs), supervised Neural Networks (NN). Hidden layer nodes and output nodes in MLPs process the data entering via the input layer using activation and transfer functions.

## What is controller saturation?

Saturation effects occur when any part of a feedback control system reaches a physical limit. … If the waterbath temperature is above the setpoint, the linear system theory would demand a negative power (i.e., cooling) as control action, which is impossible for a resistive heater element.

## Is VBE always 0.7 V?

VBE is the voltage that falls between the base and emitter of a bipolar junction transistor. VBE is approximately 0.7V for a silicon transistor. For a germanium transistor (which is more rare), VBE is approximately 0.3V. Again, this formula, can be used for either silicon or germanium transistors.

## How do you convert negative voltage to positive voltage?

They follow a simple two step conversion principle and only require three capacitors.Charge a capacitor from a positive input voltage.Discharge the capacitor to an output capacitor while reversing the connection, so the positive terminal is connected to the negative and vice versa.

## What is called saturation?

Saturation is the fully conducting state in a semiconductor junction. The term is used especially in applications involving diodes and bipolar transistor s. As the forward bias in a semiconductor P-N junction increases, the current through the junction also increases, up to a certain point.

## Why do op amps need negative voltage?

Originally Answered: Why does an operational amplifier have a two power supply? Operational amplifiers have two power supply rails because they usually need to swing bipolar – output voltages that go either positive or negative in response to the normal range of input signals.

## What does saturation mean in electronics?

Electronics. Saturation velocity, the maximum velocity charge carrier in a semiconductor attains in the presence of very high electric fields. Saturation, a region of operation of a transistor#Transistor as a switch. Saturation current, limit of flowing current through a device.

## What is negative voltage in AC?

In the negative half of the voltage waveform between 180o and 270o, there is a negative voltage and positive current indicating a negative power. This negative power indicates that the coil is returning the stored electrical energy back to the supply.