- Drug Scheduling
- Controlled Substances Act and Drug Scheduling
- Drug Scheduling
- Schedule I Controlled Substances
- Schedule II Controlled Substances
- Schedule III Controlled Substances
- Schedule IV Controlled Substances
- Schedule V Controlled Substances
- Proposed Changes to the CSA
- Rescheduling Painkillers
- Rescheduling Marijuana
- The CSA and Addiction Treatment
- Alcohol – 18 Million
- Marijuana – 4.2 Million
- Painkillers – 1.8 Million
- Cocaine – 821,000
- Heroin – 426,000
- Benzodiazepines – 400,000
- Stimulants – 329,000
- Inhalants – 140,000
- Sedatives (barbiturates) – 78,000
- Why Benzodiazepines Are Classified as Controlled Substances
- What Is the Law Regarding Alprazolam and Why?
- Alprazolam as a Controlled Substance
- Alprazolam is classified as Schedule IV, which means the following:
- Treatment for Alprazolam Addiction
- Is Ativan (Lorazepam) A Controlled Substance?
- Why Is Ativan (Lorazepam) Considered A Controlled Substance?
- Understanding The Different Schedules Of Controlled Substances
- Possible Consequences Of Abusing Controlled Substances Ativan
- The Dangers Of Obtaining Ativan (Lorazepam) Illegally
- Ativan (Lorazepam) Abuse And Addiction Treatment
- Drug Classifications, Schedule I, II, III, IV, V
- Drug Schedule I Controlled Substances
- Drug Schedule II/IIN Controlled Substances (2/2N)
- Drug Schedule III/IIIN Controlled Substances (3/3N)
- Drug Schedule IV Controlled Substances
- Drug Schedule V Controlled Substances
- The Drug Classification of Klonopin
- What Schedule Drug is Xanax?
- What are the Different Schedule Levels?
- The Warnings Regarding Xanax (Benzodiazepines)
Drugs, substances, and certain chemicals used to make drugs are classified into five (5) distinct categories or schedules depending upon the drug’s acceptable medical use and the drug’s abuse or dependency potential.
The abuse rate is a determinate factor in the scheduling of the drug; for example, Schedule I drugs have a high potential for abuse and the potential to create severe psychological and/or physical dependence. As the drug schedule changes– Schedule II, Schedule III, etc.
, so does the abuse potential– Schedule V drugs represents the least potential for abuse. A Listing of drugs and their schedule are located at Controlled Substance Act (CSA) Scheduling or CSA Scheduling by Alphabetical Order.
These lists describes the basic or parent chemical and do not necessarily describe the salts, isomers and salts of isomers, esters, ethers and derivatives which may also be classified as controlled substances. These lists are intended as general references and are not comprehensive listings of all controlled substances.
Please note that a substance need not be listed as a controlled substance to be treated as a Schedule I substance for criminal prosecution.
A controlled substance analogue is a substance which is intended for human consumption and is structurally or pharmacologically substantially similar to or is represented as being similar to a Schedule I or Schedule II substance and is not an approved medication in the United States. (See 21 U.S.C. §802(32)(A) for the definition of a controlled substance analogue and 21 U.S.C. §813 for the schedule.)
Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are:
heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote
Schedule II drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. These drugs are also considered dangerous. Some examples of Schedule II drugs are:
Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin), cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (OxyContin), fentanyl, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin
Schedule III drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence. Schedule III drugs abuse potential is less than Schedule I and Schedule II drugs but more than Schedule IV. Some examples of Schedule III drugs are:
Products containing less than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with codeine), ketamine, anabolic steroids, testosterone
Schedule IV drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence. Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are:
Xanax, Soma, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Talwin, Ambien, Tramadol
Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes. Some examples of Schedule V drugs are:
cough preparations with less than 200 milligrams of codeine or per 100 milliliters (Robitussin AC), Lomotil, Motofen, Lyrica, Parepectolin
Alphabetical listing of Controlled Substances
Controlled Substances Act and Drug Scheduling
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is a law that regulates how drugs may be used, produced and sold in the United States. It applies to both legal and illegal substances.
Both the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are granted power to classify substances under the CSA.
The Controlled Substances Act outlines the drug scheduling system, which lays out five classes of drugs with different regulations for each class.
The CSA places allowances and restrictions on drugs with regards to:
Alcohol and tobacco products are not regulated under the CSA.
The DEA uses drug scheduling as a rating system to determine which drugs have a higher potential for abuse. The agency also uses scheduling to determine the charges brought upon those in possession of drugs.
Schedule I Controlled Substances
These substances have no defined medicinal purposes, have a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and have the highest potential for abuse.
Schedule I drugs include:
Schedule II Controlled Substances
Although schedule II substances have a high potential for abuse, they have an accepted medical purpose in some circumstances. Most of these drugs have strict guidelines regarding their medicinal purposes.
Schedule II drugs include:
Schedule III Controlled Substances
Drugs under this schedule are those with a moderate to low abuse potential (lower than Schedule I and II), a currently accepted medical use, a low to moderate potential for physical or psychological dependence.
Anabolic steroids and testosterone are among the drugs that fall in this category. Codeine is one of the most commonly abused schedule III drugs with addictive and intoxicating qualities.
Other examples include Buprenorphine and Ketamine.
Schedule IV Controlled Substances
These drugs are considered by the DEA to have an accepted medical use and a lower potential of abuse compared to Schedule III substances.
Schedule IV drugs include:
Schedule V Controlled Substances
These substances have the lowest potential for abuse according to the DEA. Prescriptions to control conditions irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia are among those considered schedule V. Robitussin AC, a cough suppressant with very low amounts of codeine, is also a schedule V substance.
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Proposed Changes to the CSA
Advocates of drug safety debate whether the CSA classifications actually prevent drug use. Opioid painkillers and marijuana are the most frequently discussed drugs in the CSA debate.
There are many people who advocate for either increasing or decreasing the schedule of painkillers. There are groups that are concerned about the powerfully addictive nature of painkillers and others concerned it may be too hard for people who need pain relief to get the drug.
Advocates of increasing the schedule of drugs hydrocodone often point to the epidemic of painkiller addictions and the rise in “pill mills” throughout the 2000’s.
These advocates were successful in lobbying for hydrocodone to move from a schedule III to a schedule II substance in 2014.
There have been many attempts to remove marijuana’s schedule I status since the 1970s. Those advocating to reduce marijuana’s schedule level say that marijuana is not more dangerous than schedule II drugs oxycodone. Additionally, schedule I drugs are considered to have no medical purpose and marijuana is used medicinally in some states.
Despite the debates, it is important to recognize the addictive quality of marijuana.
Although it’s often touted as a “non-habit forming” substance, marijuana can take a psychological hold over some people, similar to how some people develop food or gambling addictions.
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The CSA and Addiction Treatment
Because the CSA designates some drugs as illegal, some people may not seek treatment for their addiction for fear of being arrested for possession. But having an addiction is not illegal. Getting treatment is the best way to turn your life around.
If you have an addiction, there are people available to help you find a treatment center and discuss financial options. Call a treatment expert to get help.
Nicotine addiction may not appear as harmful as many other addictions. This is ly because tobacco products are legal and easy to get, and the worst side effects of abusing them take time to develop.
Tobacco use claims more lives than any any other addictive substance. Many smokers cannot quit despite knowing smoking’s impact on their health.
Wanting to quit but being unable to is a telltale sign of addiction.
Find out how to quit tobacco.
Alcohol – 18 Million
The social acceptance of drinking can make alcohol addiction hard to spot. Despite its legal status, alcohol’s potential for abuse opens users up to many health risks and possible addiction.
Alcohol abuse has numerous negative consequences. In addition to deaths from liver disease and alcohol overdose, drunk driving claims thousands of lives every year.
Learn more about alcoholism
Marijuana – 4.2 Million
The legalization of marijuana in some states has made the drug’s use more socially acceptable. This trend can distract people from marijuana’s addictive potential. Rates of marijuana addiction might also be growing due to increasing potency (over 60 percent) over the past decade.
Learn more about marijuana dependence.
Painkillers – 1.8 Million
Drugs codeine, Vicodin and Oxycontin are commonly prescribed to treat pain. Painkillers’ prescription status does not mean they aren’t addictive.
Addiction to painkillers can develop from seemingly harmless levels of use. Most patients who become addicted to prescription painkillers don’t notice they have a problem until they try to stop use.
Painkillers are also abused without a prescription, which can also lead to an addiction.
Learn how to beat a painkiller addiction.
Cocaine – 821,000
Rates of cocaine addiction in the United States are dropping. The decline is slow, however, with an estimated 821,000 Americans still addicted as of 2011. Crack cocaine, which is cheaper and more intense than regular cocaine, is responsible for many crippling addictions and ruined lives.
Learn how to battle a cocaine addiction.
Heroin – 426,000
Heroin’s severe withdrawal symptoms make beating a heroin addiction a difficult task. Treating heroin addiction typically requires a combination of therapy and medications to help manage symptoms of withdrawal and cravings.
Heroin abuse has been growing in the United States, particularly among young women. There is growing concern over heroin users contracting and spreading diseases HIV and AIDS by sharing needles for injection.
Find out how to treat a heroin addiction.
Benzodiazepines – 400,000
“Benzos” — such as Valium, Xanax, Diazepam and Klonopin — are prescribed as mood-regulating drugs to manage conditions anxiety and stress. Those developing an addiction to these drugs oftentimes aren’t aware until they can’t function normally without the substance.
Benzodiazepines are especially dangerous because of their powerful impact on the brain’s chemical makeup. Withdrawals can be deadly without medical assistance during detox.
Learn more about benzodiazepine addiction.
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Stimulants – 329,000
Stimulants range from prescription drugs, such as Adderall or Ritalin, to illicit substances meth. These drugs are highly addictive, and intense withdrawal symptoms make quitting difficult. Stimulant users can quickly build a tolerance to the drug’s euphoric “high,” leading to increased use and risk of overdose.
Find out about stimulant dependence.
Inhalants – 140,000
Inhalant addiction is particularly dangerous because inhalants are volatile toxic substances.
The effects of these substances — gasoline, household cleaning products, aerosols — are intense and can have immediate consequences including hospitalization or death.
Chemicals prevalent in inhalants can linger in the body and brain long after stopping use, making complete recovery more difficult.
Learn more about inhalants.
Sedatives (barbiturates) – 78,000
Millions of Americans are prescribed barbiturate sedatives, commonly known as sleeping pills, to treat tension and sleep disorders. Every year, thousands of prescription users build a tolerance — and ensuing addiction — to drugs Lunesta and Ambien. Sleeping pills can produce mind-altering effects that lead to continued abuse.
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Learn how to treat sleeping pill addiction.
Why Benzodiazepines Are Classified as Controlled Substances
DIN / Getty Images
Certain medications used to treat anxiety disorders fall under the classification of “controlled substances.
” Benzodiazepines, such as Ativan, Xanax and Valium, are a class of medications commonly used for their tranquilizing and anti-anxiety effects and are often prescribed for panic disorder.
Benzodiazepines are considered schedule IV controlled substances. But, what exactly does that mean?
For many decades, the United States has fought what is often termed a “war on drugs.” Recognizing the potential that certain medications have for abuse and dependence, Congress enacted the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. Over the years, the Act has had several revisions including:
- The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978
- The Controlled Substances Penalties Amendments Act of 1984
- The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988
- The Domestic Chemical Diversion and Control Act of 1993
- The Federal Analog Act
- The Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act
The CSA mandates that manufacturers, distributors, pharmacies and healthcare providers diligently ensure the safe and efficient delivery of controlled substances identified within five schedules under the Act.
Medications controlled by the CSA fall into one of five schedules. Each schedule attempts to classify drugs in order of their potential for abuse, medical value and safety standards. Schedule I drugs are seen as the most serious and Schedules II through V include drugs in decreasing order of potential for abuse.
To understand what Title 21, Chapter 13 of the CSA entitled “Drug Abuse Prevention and Control” says about various controlled substances, let's look at a brief overview of each schedule.
Drugs and other substances that fall into Schedule I classification are seen to have the highest potential for abuse. They are also deemed as having no accepted medical use in the U.S. and lack customary safety standards.
Examples of Schedule I drugs include:
- Crack cocaine
These drugs and substances also have a high potential for abuse, but they do also have a currently accepted medical use in the U.S. It's noted in the CSA that abuse of these drugs “may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.”
Examples of Schedule II drugs include:
The potential for abuse of Schedule III drugs and substances is lower than the previous categories. These, too, have a medicinal use, though they can lead to “moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.”
Examples of Schedule III drugs include:
This is where benzodiazepines fall into the controlled substance classifications. The substances classified as Schedule IV have a lower potential for abuse, but the risk does remain. Again, these do have medical uses and many are common treatments for anxiety and similar medical conditions.
According to the CSA, drugs listed in Schedule IV are classified as such because “Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.”
Examples of Schedule IV drugs include:
- Xanax (alprazolam)
- Ativan (lorazepam)
- Klonopin (clonazepam)
- Valium (diazepam)
In relation to the other controlled substances, Schedule V drugs have a low potential for abuse and they are common medical treatments. While the risk of dependence is very low, it does still exist.
Certain cough medicines with codeine are examples of Schedule V drugs.
Benzodiazepines are included in Schedule IV of the CSA. This would seem to indicate that this class of medications has a relatively low potential for abuse in comparison with many other types of controlled substances. Benzodiazepines do have the potential for physical dependency when used for long periods of time and can be psychologically addictive in some individuals.
Benzodiazepines should be taken only as directed by your doctor. You should not increase your dosage without consulting your doctor. Also, do not stop taking this medication without your doctor’s advice. Doing so may cause unwanted withdrawal symptoms or worsen your condition.
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What Is the Law Regarding Alprazolam and Why?
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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) that regulates neuronal excitability. The benzodiazepine medication alprazolam, which is chemically similar to the neurotransmitter, binds to GABA receptor sites increasing their efficiency.
The tranquilizing effects of alprazolam make the drug effective in treating anxiety disorders and panic attacks, but the drug is only intended for short-term use. Long-term use can lead to a change in the brain causing issues with regulating memory, coordination, alertness, heart rate, and blood pressure.1
Alprazolam, which includes brand name formulations Xanax and Niravam, is the most common benzodiazepine with nearly 50 million prescriptions dispensed in 2012.
However, the drug has the potential to cause addiction, dependence, side effects, and potentially lethal withdrawal symptoms.
To protect the public, the government restricted alprazolam use under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970.2
Alprazolam as a Controlled Substance
Controlled substances fall under five distinct schedules accepted medical use and the potential for abuse and dependence. Schedule I drugs LSD and MDMA are completely restricted while Schedule II drugs amphetamines and opioid pain relievers are the most restricted drugs available via a prescription.
Alprazolam is classified as Schedule IV, which means the following:
Alprazolam may have relatively less potential for abuse and dependence than some other drugs, but the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) report shows that it is still a major concern. Between 2005 and 2011, 10% of all emergency room visits dealing with misuse of prescription drugs involved alprazolam.4
Treatment for Alprazolam Addiction
The legal restrictions on alprazolam are meant to protect consumers, but even medicinal users are susceptible to addiction. Should alprazolam abuse occur, professional rehab offers the most effective recovery services, which may include the following:
As with any benzodiazepine dependence, alprazolam detox involves a gradual reduction in dosage that weans the body off the drug. Otherwise, quitting too quickly can result in a prolonged and pronounced withdrawal syndrome with the potential for life-threatening seizures.
Our admissions coordinators are available 24 hours a day to help you or a loved one who has become dependent on prescription medication alprazolam. We can answer questions, discuss options, and provide information, and we can even check health insurance policies for treatment benefits. Call us at 706-914-2327.
By Melissa Riddle Chalos
1“Benzodiazepines.” Healthline.com, 5 Aug. 2015.
2“Benzodiazepines.” US Drug Enforcement Administration, Jan. 2013.
3“Drug Scheduling.” US Drug Enforcement Administration, Accessed 29 Nov. 2018.
4Bush, Donna, “Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of the Anti-anxiety Medication Alprazolam.” The CBHSQ Report, 22 May 2014.
Articles posted here are primarily educational and may not directly reflect the offerings at Black Bear Lodge. For more specific information on programs at Black Bear Lodge, contact us today.
Is Ativan (Lorazepam) A Controlled Substance?
Ativan (lorazepam) is a Schedule IV controlled substance, which means it has a relatively low potential for abuse, compared to other substances, but it is still considered habit-forming.
In 1970, the United States officially recognized the potential for abuse and dependence that certain medications have. Although some prescription medications are abused, many of these medications, Ativan are considered safe when used as directed.
In an effort to prevent abuse, Congress enacted the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as a part of a comprehensive plan to gain better control over habit-forming medications and substances. The CSA categorizes known substances and medicines into “Schedules” to define their abuse potential and regulate their use.
Why Is Ativan (Lorazepam) Considered A Controlled Substance?
Ativan (lorazepam) is a benzodiazepine most commonly used as an anti-anxiety medication, but may also be used to manage seizure disorders such as epilepsy. Ativan is considered a controlled substance because it has a relatively high potential for abuse compared to other substances.
Understanding The Different Schedules Of Controlled Substances
Controlled substances are divided into classes known as schedules. Each schedule is defined by the substances potential for abuse, medical value, and safety standards. Schedule I drugs are considered the most dangerous, compared to the substances in Schedules II through V.
- Schedule I substance have the highest potential for abuse, do not have medical applications in the U.S. and lack usual safety standards.
- Schedule II substances may have a high potential for abuse but are considered for use in medical applications. Without proper oversight, these substances can lead to psychological or physical dependence.
- Schedule III substances have the potential for abuse, but their potential is ranked lower than that of the previous two schedules.
- Schedule IV substances, such as Ativan, have an even lower potential for abuse, but may still cause moderate or low physical dependence or psychological dependence.
- Schedule V substances are considered to have the lowest potential for abuse than all other substances. Some of these substances may even be obtained over-the-counter, such as cough medication.
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Possible Consequences Of Abusing Controlled Substances Ativan
Although benzodiazepines are ranked as a Schedule IV controlled substance, misusing them can still be dangerous. Abusing medications such as Ativan can easily cause dependence on the drug. Misuse is classified as taking more of the medication than recommended or take it for longer than intended.
Ativan (lorazepam) should only be taken as directed. Do not increase your dose or frequency of the medication without consulting your doctor first. It is also not considered safe to suddenly stop taking Ativan, as doing so may result in the sudden onset of withdrawal symptoms.
The Dangers Of Obtaining Ativan (Lorazepam) Illegally
Abuse of benzodiazepine medication is on the rise. Some research indicates that there is a “shadow crisis” of benzodiazepine abuse hidden beneath the opioid crisis in the U.S. Because of this, many doctors are attempting to cut back on the number of benzodiazepine prescriptions they write.
When someone who has become dependent on a drug Ativan can no longer receive it from a doctor, they may try to obtain it illegally. This is particularly true if someone has become addicted to the substance.
Medications obtained on the street or by other illegal means, such as the dark web, are much less safe than those doled out by the pharmacy because they do not undergo the same strict safety regulations.
Often, these medications are laced with other additives that can be toxic or are entirely fake. Police departments across the country have reported findings of excessively potent drugs fentanyl-laced OxyContin pills, fake Xanax bars, and counterfeit Ativan tablets.
Ativan (Lorazepam) Abuse And Addiction Treatment
Individuals struggling with Ativan (lorazepam) abuse and addiction may need the help of formal addiction treatment to break the cycle. People often believe that because they got the medication from their doctor, it is harmless, but this is not always the case.
Although many people may start using Ativan to combat their anxiety symptoms, one major facet to addiction treatment is to learn how to deal with these symptoms without the use of drugs.
Reputable drug rehab programs use a combination of evidenced-based therapies to ensure a comprehensive treatment approach.
This can include treatments such as yoga, proper nutrition, physical fitness, and individual or group counseling.
Drug Classifications, Schedule I, II, III, IV, V
The DEA’s drug schedule organizes drugs into groups risk of abuse or harm.
Those drugs with high risk and no counterbalancing benefit are banned from medical practice and are Schedule I drugs. Conversely, those considered to have the lowest risk would be in Schedule V (5).
A drug or chemical can be treated as a Schedule 1 substance for criminal prosecution even if it is not a controlled substance.
Controlled drugs that are considered to have virtually no risk for addiction, abuse or harm are not scheduled. Examples of those would be insulin, blood pressure and cholesterol medicines.
Often searched for are: Ketamine (schedule 3), tramadol (schedule 4), weed/marijuana/pot (schedule 5 though uncontrolled/legal in some states). Lyrica/pregabalin (schedule 5). Both Propofol and Gabapentin remain unscheduled in the US, meaning you need a prescription(they are controlled), but it’s not a scheduled substance.
In 1970 the FDA released the following drug classifications, or drug schedules, under the Controlled Substance Act (CSA).
Drug Schedule I Controlled Substances
Schedule I drugs have no currently accepted medical use and aren’t considered safe to use even under medical supervision. They have a high potential for abuse and dependency.
Marijuana falls into Schedule I. The Controlled Substances Act was passed in 1970, at a time when there was a “war on drugs” and the concept of zero tolerance and pot as a gateway drug was mainstream thinking.
One of the many unintended consequences of slotting marijuana into Schedule I was the restrictions it placed on the ability to conduct research to discover if and what are the “medicinal” properties of marijuana and what are the dangers.
Without good, or even reasonable quality research, the discussions of legalizing marijuana are opinion, not fact. MedShadow discusses the unreasonable requirements put on marijuana researchers in this video.
Other Schedule I drugs are: heroin, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, methaqualone, and Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).
Drug Schedule II/IIN Controlled Substances (2/2N)
This category is for drugs that have a high potential for abuse which may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Drug Schedule II/IIN substances are considered to have medical value.
Examples of Schedule II controlled drugs include: OxyContin and Percocet (oxycodone), opium, codeine, morphine, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), methadone, Demerol (meperidine), and fentanyl.
Examples of Schedule IIN stimulants include: amphetamine (Dexedrine, Adderall), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), and methylphenidate (Ritalin).
Drug Schedule III/IIIN Controlled Substances (3/3N)
The potential for abuse for Schedule III/IIIN medicines is less than substances in drugs classified as Schedule I or II/IIN and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
Examples of Schedule III narcotics include: Ketamine, Vicodin (combination products containing less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit), Tylenol with Codeine (products containing not more than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit), and buprenorphine (Suboxone).
Examples of Schedule IIIN non-narcotics include anabolic steroids such as Depo-Testosterone.
Drug Schedule IV Controlled Substances
The medicines in drug classification Schedule IV /Schedule 4 can and are abused and can be addictive or create a dependency, but less than those of Schedules 1, 2 and 3.
Examples of Schedule IV substances include: Tramadol, Xanax (alprazolam), carisoprodol (Soma), Klonopin (clonazepam), Valium (diazepam), Ativan (lorazepam (Ativan).
Drug Schedule V Controlled Substances
These drugs are considered to have a low potential for abuse relative to substances listed in Schedule IV and consist primarily of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics.
Examples of Schedule V drugs: Lyrica/pregabalin, cough preparations containing not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams (Robitussin AC, Phenergan with Codeine), and ezogabine.
For more information and a complete list of substances: Drug Enforcement Administration Office of Diversion Control.
The Drug Classification of Klonopin
The FDA approved clonazepam in June 1975 for short term relief of anxiety, the treatment of panic disorders, and preventing certain types of seizures. It works by calming the brain and the nerves. It may be used alone or in conjunction with other medications to treat petit mal seizures and akinetic seizures.
Klonopin is classified as a Schedule IV drug under the Controlled Substance Act (CSA), which was part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970.
the “War on Drugs” in the 1970’s came the recognition that certain drugs had potential for dependence and abuse. Medications that fall under the Act are identified within five schedules.
The CSA mandates that healthcare providers, pharmacies, distributers, and manufacturers meticulously ensure the safe delivery of all controlled substances listed under the schedules.
Listed as Schedule I drugs are the substances that have no approved medical use, demonstrate a high potential for abuse, and lack safety standards. Drugs listed under Schedule I are substances such as heroin, LSD, PCP, and crack cocaine. Schedules II to V include drugs in decreasing order of potential for dependence and abuse. Schedule IV drugs are defined as such:
- The drug or substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or substances listed as schedule III.
- The drug or substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment on the United States.
- Abuse of the drug or substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or substances listed as schedule III
Some common side effects of Klonopin when taken as prescribed are:
- Sleep disturbance
- Unsteadiness or weakness
Patients with seizure disorders needs to be aware that anti-epileptic medications have been associate with an increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior, and should weigh the risk of suicide with the need for anti-epileptic drugs.
Although benzodiazepines are listed as Schedule IV and therefore should have a low potential for abuse, this is not true when they are used for extended periods of time, or when prescribed to individuals with substance abuse disorders.
All benzodiazepines can cause physical dependence and ceasing to take the medication abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms that include:
- Loss of self-worth
- Muscle cramping
If you think that you or a loved one has developed a dependence on Klonopin, it is important to seek professional help. Contact us today at 800.218.6727. We can help.
Ankrom, Sheryl. “Benzodiazepines: Schedule IV Controlled Substances. What Does ‘Controlled Substance’ Mean?” http://panicdisorder.about.com/od/treatments/a/benzocsa.htm”
Ogbru, Omudhome. “Clonazepam, Klonopin.” http://www.medicinenet.com/clonazepam/article.htm
What Schedule Drug is Xanax?
Drugs have been around since the beginning of time. Whether they’re needed for pain, illness or anxiety; there is a drug for just about everything. in the early year’s nobody knew what consequences if any, the drugs had.
There had to be some trial and error; hence using cocaine in Coca-Cola and opium being able to be purchased over the counter for headaches.
One doctor’s started understanding the physical and psychological effects these drugs had on people and that they could become addictive, there was a need to control the substances.
The US has been trying to safely and effectively control drug use since the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
The act was changed numerous times over the six decades that followed, but the greatest change took effect in the early 1970s with the CSA.
This is when President Nixon signed the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) that gave the DEA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the power to determine which substances are fit for medical use.
What are the Different Schedule Levels?
Medications controlled by the CSA are divided into five categories called “schedules”. Each schedule tries to divide drugs in order of their potential for abuse, medical value, and safety standards. Schedule I drugs are seen as the most serious and Schedules II through V include drugs in decreasing order of potential for abuse and addiction.
The drugs that are considered the most dangerous by the DEA are known as Schedule I substances. These are drugs with no current medical use, by analysis according to the DEA and FDA. These substances also carry a high potential for abuse and addiction.
Schedule I drugs include:
- Bath salts
These drugs also have a high potential for abuse and addiction, but they are also currently accepted to have medical use in the U.S. It’s noted in the CSA that abuse of these drugs may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
Schedule II drugs include:
Substances with a low to moderate potential for physical and psychological dependence are classified under Schedule III by the DEA. When misused, these drugs can still lead to abuse or addiction. You can purchase these drugs at a pharmacy with a prescription, but you generally will not find them available over the counter.
Schedule III drugs include:
- Tylenol with codeine
- Anabolic steroids
This is where Xanax and other benzodiazepines fall into the controlled substance classifications.
The drugs or substances classified as Schedule IV have a lower potential for abuse and addiction, but the risk does remain.
Again, these do have medical uses and many are common treatments for anxiety and similar medical conditions. These also require a prescription and are not available over the counter.
Schedule IV drugs include:
Finally, the least addictive substances are labeled under Schedule V according to the DEA. Schedule V substances have a very low potential for abuse; however, if the substance is misused to a large degree, physical or psychological dependency could develop.
Schedule V drugs include:
- Robitussin AC
- Phenergan with codeine
The Warnings Regarding Xanax (Benzodiazepines)
Xanax (Benzodiazepines) are included in Schedule IV of the CSA.
Because of this classification, it would seem to indicate that this class of medications has a relatively low potential for abuse in comparison with many other types of controlled substances.
This doesn’t mean that it is in any way less dangerous and addictive. Xanax and other Benzodiazepines do have the potential for physical dependence when used for long periods of time and can be psychologically addictive in some individuals.
Benzodiazepines should be taken only as prescribed by your doctor. If you take more than prescribed or quit suddenly, doing so may cause unwanted withdrawal symptoms or worsen your condition. Xanax withdrawal symptoms can take hold within hours of the last dose, and they can peak in severity within 1-4 days. During withdrawal, people can experience:
- Blurred vision
- Muscle pain
- Numb fingers
- Sensitivity to light and sound
- Loss of appetite
- Heart palpitations
It has been reported that Xanax is one of the most prescribed drugs in the United States for the management of panic and anxiety disorders. It has also been reported from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) reported that close to 10% of all emergency department visits related to the abuse of pharmaceuticals involved the benzodiazepine, or benzo, alprazolam.
Detox from Xanax should not be done at home due to the dangerous withdrawal symptoms that can occur.
We at Garden State Treatment Center understand when you or a family member is struggling with addiction, it is important to get them the right kind of help.
Attempting on your own to recover exposes you to a higher risk of experiencing a relapse. With the right professional care, you can come off clean in a gradual, stress-free manner.